Advocates of your unidimensional approach concern the need for this sort away from group on basis that it is maybe not certain whether or not they offer a much better knowledge of people behaviour and that they can also be obscure the picture ( Lukaszewski, 2010 twenty two. Lukaszewski , W . ( 2010 ). Udreka zycia. [torment of life] . Sopot : Smak slowa . ). Within their view, the study of their outcomes for the informal person life is far more very important than pinpointing this resources of the fresh new FOPD, like in the analysis according to the horror government theory (Solomon, Greenberg, & Pyszczynski, 2015). Thus, it could be concluded that it doesn’t matter how accurately we identify the object of your FOPD, one or two central things remain a similar: the point that we experience concern in addition to proven fact that in all the instances it concerns passing-the brand new fragility away from peoples lifetime. By comparison, Yalom (2008b) thinks one to dying anxiety was a mix of type of, virtually specific, concerns, amongst that your central issue is worries regarding individual annihilation-worries regarding ceasing to exist. Within this take a look at, it is legitimate so you can are convinced that the 2 tactics (unidimensional and you will multidimensional) do not prohibit both however, allow a better comprehension of different portions from person life where in fact the FOPD really works an very important function. In the design of your own FOPD, you are able to separate one another a general measurement and you can an effective quantity of specific versions making it upwards; the fresh new factors that needs to be the focus are determined by expectations while the accuracy of your products made use of.
An evaluation of the for your needs classifications ways, first of all, this one form of FOPD (e
g., fear of existence after demise, fear of the whole process of passing away otherwise anxiety about one’s body shortly after passing) are present by themselves of your own used identity standards, and you may secondly, that kind of FOPD which can be known as independent into the you to definitely group could be found in most other classifications in the assortment off more broadly defined sorts of FOPD ( Ochsmann, 1993 29. Ochsmann , R . ( 1993 ). Anxiety vor tod und sterben. Beitrage zur thanato-psychologie. [concern about demise and perishing. Benefits to help you thanatopsychology ] . Gottingen : Hogrefe . ). Such as for example observations suggest a beneficial hierarchical design of your FOPD.
As there are inaccuracies about literary works on definition and construction of FOPD, the aim of today’s study was to consider it from inside the a far more nuanced method, towards Furcht vor Tod und Sterben Fragebogen (Demise and you will Dying Nervousness Collection, FVTS) since the an enthusiastic empirical example. A lot more particularly, we hypothesised you to definitely (a) the latest inconsistencies and you may contradictory leads to prior look was indeed on account of the existence of the overall concern with dying factor, which is meaningfully differentiated with the specific types of brand new FOPD; and (b) the fresh new FOPD perform result in have a good hierarchical design. To check on whether or not the structure of one’s FVTS made up the entire concern about dying including a great deal more specific types of FOPD, i performed a beneficial bi-foundation confirmatory basis study. To evaluate whether or not the construction of your FOPD was hierarchical in the nature, i ran a few exploratory architectural equation patterns since advised in Goldberg’s (2006) 13. Goldberg , L. R . ( 2006 ). Carrying it out all the trout-ackwards: The development of the latest hierarchical grounds structures throughout the greatest off . Log away from Browse when you look at the Identification , 40 , 347 – ۳۵۸ . . top-down procedure.
Participants and you will techniques
The study was conducted in central, eastern and southern Poland on a group of 1217 people (602 women and 615 men) between 18 and 89 years of age ( M Years = ; SD Age = ). The sample consisted of people in the following age ranges: between 18 and 23 years old ( M Age = ; SD Age = 1.79), constituting 35%; between 24 and 40 years old ( M Age = ; SD Age = 4.98), constituting 38%; between 41 and 59 years old ( M Age = ; SD Age = 4.95), constituting 16%; and over 60 years old ( M Age = ; SD Age = 5.74), constituting 3%. There was no data on age for 8% of the sample. Twenty-nine per cent of participants had a secondary education, 23% besthookupwebsites.org/get-it-on-review/ had an elementary education (17% of them were secondary school students) and 23% had a higher education. We did not obtain information on 25% of the participants’ education level.